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What is GREEN GDP?

>> Friday, September 19, 2014



GDP or the Gross Domestic Product is defined as an aggregate measure of production equal to the sum of the gross values added of all resident institutional units engaged in production (plus any taxes, and minus any subsidies, on products not included in the value of their outputs.

Now the concerns for environment have gained high place in everyone's life. The people have become deeply concerned with environmental problems caused across the world through depletion of environmental resources at one hand and various pollutions leading to global problems on the other.

Earlier the GDP was calculated without taking into consideration the actual damages caused to the environment through the process of production.

But now, the damages to environment, its resources, public health etc. are also taken into consideration. As such the cost of environmental damages is to be subtracted from the GDP to calculate the Green GDP and it is very important.

Thus, GREEN GDP is an approach to conserve environment and it is an attempt by economists, due to pressures from environmental problems and tragedies the world over, to measure the Economic Growth compared to the harm done by production to environment.


Key Words: GDP, Environment, Economists
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Child Labour in India

Mahatma Gandhi, the Father of the Nation has said, “If we are to reach real peace in this world, and if we are to carry on a real war against war, we shall have to begin with children. And if they will grow up in their natural innocence, we won’t have to struggle, we won’t have to pass fruitless, idle resolutions, but we shall go from love to love and peace to peace, until at last all the corners of the world are covered with that peace and love for which, consciously or unconsciously, the whole world is hungering.”

In contrast to the Mahatma’s wishes a very large number of children today, are dying of hunger and an equally large number of children are being routinely harassed and abused in different nooks and corners of the world. Millions of children are working as child labours in hotels, motels, factories, at construction sites, in industries and everywhere.

Who is a Child Labour?
A minor boy or girl, who is employed in a work that may interfere with his / her education or endangers his / her health, is called as a child labour.
Origin of the system of keeping Child Labour

The word ‘child labour’ was formerly applied to the practice of employing minors in factories. Before the introduction of the Factory System, the system of employing children for work was not regarded as a social problem. History reveals that children used to work with their parents in Agriculture fields and on market places throughout the ages and during most of the centuries. It was since the Industrial Revolution that factory owners started employing minor children for long hours and gradually it became a social problem. In the later part of the 18th century, some cruel factory owners of Britain, specially the owners of the cotton mills, employed orphan children and children of poor parents  merely at the cost of food and forced them to work for more than 12 hours a day. During the period, the employment of minor children for long hours was observed in many other countries also. According to a report, about 30 percent of the work force in the factories of the United States was made by child labourers of 7 to 12 years of age, during the early part of the 19th century.

Child Labour in India
According to a general survey, the population of children under the age of 14 in India is estimated to be more than the entire population of the United States. Making nutrition, education and healthcare available to all these children, is a great challenge before the country. The total number of labourer in India comprises about 3.6percent children under the age of 14. About 85 percent of the total child labourers in the country are usually engaged in agricultural activities. The percentage of child labourers working in manufacturing, services and repairs is around 9 percent. About 0.8 percent of the child labourers work in factories. According to the studies carried out by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) in 1979, more than 50 million children were employed in India to work in various types of organisations and even under hazardous conditions. As per studies of ILO, out of the total 16.5 million child labourers in India, around 20,000 work in match factories alone.
Children have been reported to work as child labourers in mining and quarrying, transport, processing industries, carpet industries, slate and marble industries  and in masonry works. As such, the problem of child labour is a big challenge before the country.

Causes of Child Labour
 Poverty, indebtedness, illiteracy and over population are the root causes of child labour. In fact, the problem of child labour is an International Problem. It exists in all those areas where populations of the poor live under acute hardships. Thus the problem is seen in acute form in specific areas of developed countries of Europe and the United States also.

How to solve the problem of Child Labour?
            The Directive Principles of the State Policy (Article 39) enshrined in the Constitution of India direct the state –
·           that the health and strength of workers -men and women and tender aged children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age and strength;
·           that children re given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that children and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment

Various national and International organisations as well as governments of many countries are inclined to eliminate the problem of child labour through their own ways. Social Reformers have already been trying to change the mindset of societies so as to eliminate this problem. The International Labour Organisation (ILO) was founded in 1919. It is now an important agency of the United Nations. It has introduced a number of Child Labour Conventions so far. But, it is up to the member countries to enforce rules to check the problem.

India enacted Children (Pledging of Labour) Act for the first time in February 1933. After that, it passed the Employment of Children Act in 1938. Further, the government passed much additional legislation to offer legal protection to children. The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act 1986 was passed by the Indian Government to regulate services of children in non-hazardous occupations. This Act bans the employment of children of less than 14 years of age in specified occupations and processes. On December 11, 1992; India acceded to the ‘Convention on the Rights of Child’. The General Assembly of the United Nations adopted this convention on 20 November, 1989. This convention has 54 Articles in Three Parts. According to the ratification – India will ensure wide awareness about issues relating to children among government agencies, implementing agencies, the media, the Judiciary, the Public and children themselves.

The Child Labour Policy of India
The Government of India adopted a National Child Labour Policy in 1987 in accordance with the provisions made in its constitution and various legislations made from time to time. The Central Government has started a National Child Labour Project (NCLP) Scheme for covering 150,000 children. About 105, 000 children have already been enrolled in Special Schools for their free education and Training. So far, the project has been started in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh in special areas. A Central Advisory Board on Child Labour was also constituted on March 4, 1981.

Key Words: Child Labour,hotels, factories, NCLP


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J and K floods were linked to the Climate Change

>> Tuesday, September 16, 2014


Environmentalists in India are of the opinion that disasters in Jammu and Kashmir were linked to the processes of the Climate Change. The Centre for science and Environment has pointed out that Climate Change is the basic force behind the floods in the state. The state does not have any flood forecasting system and any Disaster Management Plan.

In spite of different cases of disasters that occurred in the country within the period of last few years, like Mumbai Floods of 2005 and other extreme events, no opinion regarding any linkage of J and K floods with climate has been expressed by the government.

The intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reported in 2007 that extreme events of rain fall were set to increase over the Indian subcontinent. The IPCC in its 5th Assessment Report had warned that the intensity of rainfall in India would increase. The Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology in a report published in 2006 had already predicted about changes in rainfall patterns over Himalayan ranges in 2006. In spite of these studies the Indian Government did not take sufficient care for disaster management in a region away from the coastline. Most of the efforts pertaining to the disaster management remained focussed on thunderbolts, fires, droughts, cyclones, and floods in plains
According to the sources of Science and Environment a study based on data on J and K gathered through remote sensing had released in 2004 that 55 percent of the wetlands, drainage channels and water bodies had been encroached upon.

According to a report published in The Hindu, English Daily News Paper, Ms. Sunita Narain, the Director General of CSE has pointed out that J and K had an "intricate system of water management. The lake areas had diminished, the holding capacity of many water bodies had gone down, and houses were built in places they should never had been. Such is the condition of many of the Indian cities, and efforts for correction measures are urgent to be made so as to avoid any disaster in future.


Key Words: disaster, J and K, IPCC, CSE
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The First Indian Scientist to touch the end of sky

>> Thursday, September 11, 2014



Mr. T.N.Suresh Kumar, the senior scientist of ISRO'S Master Control Facility in Hassan has become the first Indian to visit the stratosphere, the second layer of the atmosphere of the earth on 15th August this year.

The Country of Tourism Limited, an agency of Russia conducted the space travel. The space journey which is called as Edge of Space had started conducting space travel 6 years ago.

So far 258 persons across the world have travelled up to this point and Mr. Suresh Kumar has been the 259th in the world to touch the end of the sky.

He had to pay, as per reports, rupees 15 lakh from his savings to the agency to facilitate his travel and to make his dream come true. He travelled in MIG 29 with a maximum speed of 1,850 km per hour and reached the edge of stratosphere in 48 minutes- report news media.

Key Words: T. N. Suresh, stratosphere,Russia,edge
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Uttarakhand declares September 9 as Himalaya Divas


In view of conservation of Himalayan Ecosystem, Harish Rawat, the Chief Minister of Uttarakhand officially declared September 9 as Himalaya Divas. The matter was proposed from Ajai Bhatt, a senior BJP leader and was accepted by Mr. Rawat. The state Government organised rally and seminar in Dehradun on 9th September to mark the occasion.

Senior BJP and Congress party leaders attended the programmes. Rallies and seminars to mark the occasion were organised in many different districts of the state as well. The environmentalists participating in the Himalaya Divas celebrations were reportedly of the opinion that the Himalaya Divas should address both the environmental and social problems of the Himalayan region.


Key Words: Uttarakhand, ecosystem, environmentalists, social problems
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Beautiful butterflies: the messengers of God

>> Tuesday, August 26, 2014


The balance of nature is maintained by its different components -living and non-living, if they remain unaltered by human beings. Numerous types of tiny creatures like insects or arthropods form the most important link of the chain through which food and energy move from organism to organism. Thus, these too contribute a lot in maintaining the balance of nature. But no one of us or very few of us, take a little care of them.

There are numerous types of insects or arthropods around us but most of us tend to kill them by chemical and mechanical means. Here I don’t want to blame any one for killing these insects. Rather, I wish to draw your attention towards one of these insects that deserves our love and care due to its some of the special merits; and also due to its great services for the good of mankind. Now, this respectable and loveable insect is the Butterfly. I can confidently say that all of you love butterflies. But why... Why do some people love butterflies when, on the other hand - they tend to kill most of the insects?

Well, the answer is very simple. We like butterflies and even love them because butterflies are fascinating, eye-catching, brightly or differently coloured flying insects. These represent almost all the colours and hues. All the children like you people, many adults like your parents, and some olds like me love and enjoy seeing or watching butterflies. Butterflies are as innocent, beautiful and smart as you people, and that’s the reason why adults and even olds love them. We enjoy the scene of these beautiful flying jewels and their beauties. Beauties of butterflies had also been recorded in prehistoric times. Their beauties have also been depicted in ancient pottery and Fresco Paintings.

What are Butterflies?
I hope that each one of you has seen many types of butterflies. Do you know what does the compound word “butterfly” mean? Let me offer you a clue, and the clue is – the compound word butterfly is made of two small words: butter and fly. On this basis now you may be guessing that –“butterfly means a fly that may be fond of eating butter.” … Wrong.

A butterfly has got its name from the spring season which in Europe is called as “butter season”. There in Europe, these flies appear first in the butter season or spring season, and hence the name – butterfly.
In many languages the word butterfly means “licker of milk”. Russians call them Bodochka which means “little souls”. In ancient civilizations butterflies had been regarded as “little angels” or “souls”. People in those civilizations used to believe that – when people die their souls go to heaven as butterflies.

Where in the world can we find butterflies?
Butterflies are found in most parts of the world except in Antarctica. In other words we can say that butterflies are found wherever flowers are found. Secondly, different species of butterflies like different types of flowers and different types of flowers are found in different locations. This is the reason why all types of butterflies are not found at one place. Their occurrences vary from place to place.

In current times, destruction of habitats, application of pesticides in agriculture and horticulture etc. are destroying species of butterflies. But, what is a habitat? Well, habitat is a place where an animal or plant species naturally lives or grows. Butterflies can flourish in several different types of habitat, such as wetlands, meadows, wood's edge, rainforests, and even an urban garden. Unfortunately, many natural butterfly habitats are being destroyed by the elimination of weeds and native grasses from yards, chemical pesticides, parks and roadways, as well as the deforestation of tropical rainforests, the native habitat.

Rain forests are best habitats for butterflies, and of course for varieties of other organisms. Rain forests are warm wet places that are found around the world. These are homes to more than half of the entire species of plants and animals found in the world. Many species of insects including butterflies found in these forests have not yet been identified. Now, since many thousands of acres of rainforests are being cut down and burnt every single day, the homes of even not yet identified butterflies and other organisms are vanishing fast.

Create an ideal butterfly garden
Since, butterflies are so beautiful, so pretty, so delicate, so innocent creatures of God that we all love them; we all must contribute our part to protect them and to help them develop. For this we all can do a lot. For example we can plant flowering plants in our backyards. Not all flowers attract butterflies equally. Only the flowers containing plenty of nectar are liked by them. Zinnias contain plenty of nectar. So these flowers are liked by butterflies very much. There are many other flowers too that contain plenty of nectar nettles, violets, passion vines and milkweed, daisies, and marigolds are some other flowers that are liked by butterflies. So we must select particular spots around our houses and plant these flowering plants to attract butterflies. There should also be some woody plants in our court yard to provide shelter to butterflies during bad weather. Caterpillars of butterflies eat leaves of these plants. When they grow older they settle at one place get closed into a cocoon and develop into a tiny butterfly after metamorphosis.

Create a resting place for butterflies
We all see that butterflies do hard work by flying from flower to flower the whole day. Don’t they take rest? They need rest after feeding. They suck nectar in liquid state and relax for some time. For this they sit on some bricks, rock pieces or a broad leaves and bask with their wings wide spread. Their wings act as solar collectors and collect sufficient energy to raise the body temperature and to boost up the activities of butterflies. So we can create resting or basking places for butterflies by placing rock pieces, bricks and stones at the margins of our back yard so as to facilitate butterflies rest and relax.

Eggs of butterflies
Butterflies fix their eggs to leaves using a sticky, glue-like substance. Egg location on the plant depends on the species, but you can find them anywhere, from the leaves to the stems, and sometimes even inside a flower. Different species will also favor different plants. Monarch butterflies, for example, will often lay their eggs on milkweed. To attract butterflies, you'll need to give them a place to lay their eggs. Find out what butterflies are in your area and which plants they use to lay their eggs.

Do you know?

Many people who believe in God, love butterflies and regard them as messengers of God. So when any one of such people desires a wish to come true, he captures a butterfly carefully without causing any harm to it. Then he whispers his wish to the butterfly. Since, butterflies make no sound, they can’t tell the wish to any one but to the creator only. Is not it interesting. You too may send your message to God by whispering your wish to a butterfly, but not by catching it. Just try to see a basking butterfly, go near it carefully and whisper your wish to it. 

Key Words: butterflies, messengers, monarch, milkweed
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Smut of Doob Ghas (Cynodon) infect our grains

>> Sunday, August 24, 2014


Cynodon dactylon Pers. is a common grass that grows everywhere in India. It grows on demarcation lines of crop fields and plain land.It has traditional and religious values in Hindu and tribal societies. Though the grass is infected by varieties of pathogens, cases of infection by smut fungi can be seen everywhere while passing through roads and fields. It is reported that spores of the fungi spread through wind and infect our grain crops causing considerable losses in productivity (Mishra, 2007)1. It is suggested that fungicides that are applied on crop plants to protect them from the disease, should equally be sprayed on these grass plants that act as a reservoir.

Smuts are diseases of    cereals, Maize, grasses, onion, and sorghum, caused by many species of fungi. It is characterized by resting bodies (spores) that accumulate in soot like masses called sori, formed within blisters in seeds, leaves, stems, flower parts, and bulbs. The sori usually break up into a black powder that is readily dispersed by the wind. Many smut fungi enter embryos or seedling plants, develop systemically, and appear externally only near maturity. Other smuts are localized, infecting actively growing tissues. Control includes growing resistant varieties in noninfested soil, treating seeds with a fungicide, using disease-free transplants, and destroying infected plants or plant parts before the spores are released.

Cynodon dactylon is variously known as Couch grass, green couch (Australia), Bermuda grass (United States), kabuta (Fiji), dhoub grass (Bangladesh), Bahama grass, quick grass (South Africa), chepica brave, gramilla blanca (Peru), hierba-fina (Cuba), griming, tigriston (Suriname).

Cynodon dactylon is a variable perennial, creeping by means of stolons and rhizomes, eight to 40 culms, (rarely) to 90 cm high: leaves hairy or glabrous, three to seven spikes (rarely two), usually 3-6 cm long and in one whorl, or in robust forms up to ten spikes, sometimes in two whorls: spikelets 2-3 mm long, rachilla often bearing a reduced floret. It differs from Digitaria scalarum (African couch) in the vegetative stage in that there is no obvious membranous ligule where the leaf-blade joins the sheath.

Reference: Mishra, M. P.: "Succession of fungi and their eco-microbial involvement in the decay of Cynodon dactylon Pers", Ph.D. thesis, RU


Key Words: doob ghas, smut, crops, pesticide
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The Indian Lilac



Neem, the Indian Lilac tree has been reported to contain miraculous powers of healing in all its parts. It is popular as a medicinal tree since ancient time. It is described as a great medicinal tree an Ayurvedic as well as in other healthcare systems.

Neem is differently called in different languages. In Sanskrit it is called as Nimba and in English it is called as Margosa.Tazonomically, it is known as Azadirachta indica.
Neem grows in semitropical areas like India, Bangladesh and Pakistan. The extract of Neem contains antibacterial, anti-viral, anti-fungal, antiseptic, anti-parasitic, and anti-diabetic properties. It is reported to tone up digestive, urinary, circulatory and respiratory systems of our bodies.

Medicinal and Ethnoherbological Properties
Neem has been considered excellent for the care of dental system and the area of buccal cavity. The oil of Neem is applied to cure skin disorders. It is a blood purifier as it can remove toxic matter.

New researches recommend application of Neem extract for controlling diabetes or blood glucose. The gum of Neem can be prepared variously as food items and can be used for the management of blood glucose.

Neem oil is proved to be insect repellant, natural pesticide, fertilizer and skin care ingredient. Some researchers claim that the oil of Neem has contraceptive properties. If applied regularly, it can treat itchy scalp, dandruff, scalp soriasis, and scabies.

Key Words
Ayurvedic, tropical, blood glucose, medicinal, contraceptive

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Plant Trees in the Current Monsoon Session

>> Friday, August 22, 2014


We read in some good books that long - long ago, our earth was covered with dense vegetation. That vegetation gradually reduced as civilizations developed and passed away. And, during the current civilization we have been left with very less of it. Where have all the trees and bushes gone?

Humans cleared forests to build houses as their population grew up. They expanded agriculture to grow more food to feed generations. For this they cleared forests further and further. Developments demanded more and more vegetations to become aims of axes. Trees had to be cleared for the construction of roads, rail tracks, hospitals, schools etc and for many dams and river valley projects. Thousands and thousands of age old trees were cut for the construction of highways and multi-lane roads. You see a number of trees being cut along roadsides in and around your city just for broadening of roads. People and departments have justified reasons for these activities. We too cannot blame anyone for the destruction of this age old civilization of trees around us, and for the destruction of numerous wild animals including birds and insects that form important links of our biosphere, and the whole environment. How much time does a tree of average size take to grow up to its full natural size and maturity?

Well, say at least ten years or so. An old environmentalist may say that compensatory plantation in equal number might had been done in advance; at least ten years back to recover the loss expected to occur through cutting of trees after ten years at least. But who knew ten years ago about what is to be done after ten years. Not all of our plans can be designed and formulated much earlier, say ten or twenty years back due to several reasons. So, what to do now? Well, plant trees in this monsoon session. But why …?

Benefits from trees
Trees make oxygen and spread it in the air. Without oxygen we cannot live for a moment even. Without oxygen, the animal world will die away. While inhaling air we take the oxygen with it into our bodies and live in life. Carbon dioxide makes our atmosphere or rather our environment poisonous for us. It is one of the most potent gases to cause Global Warming. Trees consume this carbon dioxide and thereby make our environment safe for us.Trees also give us many other benefits. We get fruit and flowers from the trees. Trees provide us with fuel and timbers. In summer, they bear the scorching rays of the sun and give us cool shade under them. Trees in our forests draw the rain from the clouds floating in the sky. Trees in our forests check the quick flow of rain-water and thereby check the occurrence of high flood in our rivers. On the other hand, this slow process of water-flow gives us good water all throughout the year through streams and streamlets with their sweet melodious music.

Trees conserve our soil. This soil-conservation is very important for our crop -fields. Trees make land fertile by their fallen leaves. By their fallen leaves they make new soil for us. Most of the forest-products are the products from the trees in the forests, absentee of trees will cause a lot of harm to us and to our life. So the number of trees should be multiplied by the tree-plantation by us.
We should plant trees near our houses and near our villages with a view to raising new forests. We should plant trees on the two sides of the roads and paths and on the four sides of our corn-fields. We should plant trees on all the vacant places in our village on towns where we live, and we should advise all to do so.

Selection of trees for plantation
We should make good selection of trees to be planted, in consideration of the nature of land and the kind of climate. Cocoanut trees grow well in the sea-coasts. Plantain trees grow well near the ponds. We should know which place is fit for which tree. To know this we should get our soil tested by the experts and plant the kinds of trees accordingly. Collection of plants to be planted should be made from the Government nurseries in consultation with the experts there.

Time for tree-plantation and after care
Generally, rainy season is the best time for tree-plantation. Most of the tree-plants thrive well in rainy season. Still then, we should seek advice from the Government agricultural experts about the appropriate time for the plantation of a particular kind of tree. Only planting the trees is not enough. Because, planted trees may be destroyed by animals or otherwise, or may die for regular service of water. So we should be particular about the after-care of the planted trees. We should be very careful about the newly-planted trees.


Trees should be regularly planted to save the mankind and the animal world. Tree plantation and its after-care is a pleasing work too. We can get much pleasure in planting trees and in taking care of them. Students should plant trees in their school-compounds and in the front-yards, backyards and side-yards of their schools and near their own houses and in other places wherever possible. They should explain to their neighbours the goodness of tree-plantation and encourage them to plant and care new trees.

Key Words: Trees, rainy season, Students,

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BOOKS ON ENVIRONMENT BY DR. M. P. MISHRA

>> Saturday, June 28, 2014


S. CHAND’S ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION
CLASS XI
BY
DR. M. P. MISHRA



PURPOSE OF THE BOOK

This book on Environmental Education is specially meant for the Hon’ble Teachers
  • Who remain worried for the increasing environmental problems at local, regional, national and global levels;
  • Who have commitments for doing something or everything for averting harmful conditions in the environment;
  • Who wish to transform their students into teams of researchers, surveyors, scientists, environmental workers or even just the volunteers committed to stand fast and work harder for averting the bad impacts of activities of the human race which tends to threaten the flora, fauna, and natural settings of the Physical Environment;
  • Who feel pains in their hearts on increasing inequalities in terms of distribution of resources, in terms of gender, poverty, displacements, drowning people due to floods and rising sea- levels; and
  • Who dislike imparting environmental education merely to enable students pass their examinations, and to do projects on the basis of downloaded matter suggested by himself instead of going deep into the environment through actual scientific methods- identifying problems, assessing their seriousness, and coming out with some genuine and fruitful solutions.

THE SALIENT FEATURES OF THE BOOK
·   This book has been prepared in two colours in the International Style of designing and printing;
·   It has been prepared as per the syllabi of CBSE / ISC incorporating the latest national and global information, data and records;
·   The book contains sufficient matter presented in a very comprehensive style on every aspect of the syllabi of CBSE/ ISC and incorporates easy but important examples on each aspect;
·   The language of the book is easy to understand for even an average or below average student. It has a steady flow in every part of the book. The author has tried to present, define, discuss and explain even the easiest things in the style of an expert teacher, who while teaching comes down to the level of students and talks to them like a closest, honest and helping friend;
·   The whole book has been appropriately illustrated with uncommon and rare photographs, flow charts, tables and diagrams;
·   Care has been taken to use only the best, appropriate, wanted, necessary but rare illustrations, those too in sufficient number;
·   The book contains original and latest facts; appropriate, easy and well worded definitions and easy to understand examples. The matter has been presented in a style to stimulate among students the true love for nature and to encourage the readers to become a real environmentalist;
·   The content of the book through all the chapters incorporates Standard Questions and Exercises. Questions have been printed under different categories so as to facilitate the students to prepare well for various examinations in the easiest way. The entire coverage of questions is unique for the book due to which it becomes unique for even those who prepare for competitive examinations;
·   The content of the book is so designed that it becomes very useful for various academic, vocational and professional courses also;
·   The Projects and Investigative Studies- section of each chapter has been prepared on the basis of Exemplar Activities suggested in the syllabi. It is meant for students to make them do real investigations and researches rather than facilitating them in copying out or preparing imaginary reports and presenting in their examinations. If teachers and students follow the spirit and instructions of this section they can never sit idle. Rather, they will have to move outside their classrooms for surveys, samplings, data- collection, interviews, etc. and to do lots of works in laboratories before declaring the result or solution of the projects they undertake. No activity in this book allows students to produce imaginary project reports just after going through some magazines or downloaded internet materials. All the projects are so designed that they are based on local specific examples as enshrined in the spirit of syllabi. It is the opinion of the author that doing a project or preparing a Project Report on Bhopal Gas Victims without personal visits to Bhopal and practical contacts with victims is meaningless as most of the books available on the subject suggest our students just for their commercial gains.
·   Specific boxes have been placed here and there in the contents of different chapters of the book. These boxes contain outstanding and most important facts about environment that must be known to every intelligent student.

  

S. CHAND’S ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION
CLASS XII
BY
DR. M. P. MISHRA


 PURPOSE OF THE BOOK

This book on Environmental Education is specially meant for the Hon’ble Teachers
  • Who remain worried for the increasing environmental problems at local, regional, national and global levels;
  • Who have commitments for doing something or everything for averting harmful conditions in the environment;
  • Who wish to transform their students into teams of researchers, surveyors, scientists, environmental workers or even just the volunteers committed to stand fast and work harder for averting the bad impacts of activities of the human race which tends to threaten the flora, fauna, and natural settings of the Physical Environment;
  • Who feel pains in their hearts on increasing inequalities in terms of distribution of resources, in terms of gender, poverty, displacements, drowning people due to floods and rising sea- levels; and
  • Who dislike imparting environmental education merely to enable students pass their examinations, and to do projects on the basis of downloaded matter suggested by himself instead of going deep into the environment through actual scientific methods- identifying problems, assessing their seriousness, and coming out with some genuine and fruitful solutions.


THE SALIENT FEATURES OF THE BOOK
·   This book has been prepared in two colours in the International Style of designing and printing;
·   It has been prepared as per the syllabi of CBSE / ISC incorporating the latest national and global information, data and records;
·   The book contains sufficient matter presented in a very comprehensive style on every aspect of the syllabi of CBSE/ ISC and incorporates easy but important examples on each aspect;
·   The language of the book is easy to understand for even an average or below average student. It has a steady flow in every part of the book. The author has tried to present, define, discuss and explain even the easiest things in the style of an expert teacher, who while teaching comes down to the level of students and talks to them like a closest, honest and helping friend;
·   The whole book has been appropriately illustrated with uncommon and rare photographs, flow charts, tables and diagrams;
·   Care has been taken to use only the best, appropriate, wanted, necessary but rare illustrations, those too in sufficient number;
·   The book contains original and latest facts; appropriate, easy and well worded definitions and easy to understand examples. The matter has been presented in a style to stimulate among students the true love for nature and to encourage the readers to become a real environmentalist;
·   The content of the book through all the chapters incorporates Standard Questions and Exercises. Questions have been printed under different categories so as to facilitate the students to prepare well for various examinations in the easiest way. The entire coverage of questions is unique for the book due to which it becomes unique for even those who prepare for competitive examinations;
·   The content of the book is so designed that it becomes very useful for various academic, vocational and professional courses also;
·   The Projects and Investigative Studies- section of each chapter has been prepared on the basis of Exemplar Activities suggested in the syllabi. It is meant for students to make them do real investigations and researches rather than facilitating them in copying out or preparing imaginary reports and presenting in their examinations. If teachers and students follow the spirit and instructions of this section they can never sit idle. Rather, they will have to move outside their classrooms for surveys, samplings, data- collection, interviews, etc. and to do lots of works in laboratories before declaring the result or solution of the projects they undertake. No activity in this book allows students to produce imaginary project reports just after going through some magazines or downloaded internet materials. All the projects are so designed that they are based on local specific examples as enshrined in the spirit of syllabi. It is the opinion of the author that doing a project or preparing a Project Report on Bhopal Gas Victims without personal visits to Bhopal and practical contacts with victims is meaningless as most of the books available on the subject suggest our students just for their commercial gains.
·   Specific boxes have been placed here and there in the contents of different chapters of the book. These boxes contain outstanding and most important facts about environment that must be known to every intelligent student.


·   This book incorporates a unique section entitled “WEB-LINKS” which contains web-links to all the important institutions on national and international levels that are associated with the protection and preservation of the global environment. It is a new and trendsetter step in the field of modern book publishing. Observing the changes in the teaching- learning processes, use of latest technologies in teaching in advanced institutes and centres of excellence, the author of this book has marched ahead in this new direction so as to open the world environment before readers of the book through computers and the internet.

KEY WORDS: Environment,Dr. M. P. Mishra, S.Chand
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