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Beautiful butterflies: the messengers of God

>> Tuesday, August 26, 2014


The balance of nature is maintained by its different components -living and non-living, if they remain unaltered by human beings. Numerous types of tiny creatures like insects or arthropods form the most important link of the chain through which food and energy move from organism to organism. Thus, these too contribute a lot in maintaining the balance of nature. But no one of us or very few of us, take a little care of them.

There are numerous types of insects or arthropods around us but most of us tend to kill them by chemical and mechanical means. Here I don’t want to blame any one for killing these insects. Rather, I wish to draw your attention towards one of these insects that deserves our love and care due to its some of the special merits; and also due to its great services for the good of mankind. Now, this respectable and loveable insect is the Butterfly. I can confidently say that all of you love butterflies. But why... Why do some people love butterflies when, on the other hand - they tend to kill most of the insects?

Well, the answer is very simple. We like butterflies and even love them because butterflies are fascinating, eye-catching, brightly or differently coloured flying insects. These represent almost all the colours and hues. All the children like you people, many adults like your parents, and some olds like me love and enjoy seeing or watching butterflies. Butterflies are as innocent, beautiful and smart as you people, and that’s the reason why adults and even olds love them. We enjoy the scene of these beautiful flying jewels and their beauties. Beauties of butterflies had also been recorded in prehistoric times. Their beauties have also been depicted in ancient pottery and Fresco Paintings.

What are Butterflies?
I hope that each one of you has seen many types of butterflies. Do you know what does the compound word “butterfly” mean? Let me offer you a clue, and the clue is – the compound word butterfly is made of two small words: butter and fly. On this basis now you may be guessing that –“butterfly means a fly that may be fond of eating butter.” … Wrong.

A butterfly has got its name from the spring season which in Europe is called as “butter season”. There in Europe, these flies appear first in the butter season or spring season, and hence the name – butterfly.
In many languages the word butterfly means “licker of milk”. Russians call them Bodochka which means “little souls”. In ancient civilizations butterflies had been regarded as “little angels” or “souls”. People in those civilizations used to believe that – when people die their souls go to heaven as butterflies.

Where in the world can we find butterflies?
Butterflies are found in most parts of the world except in Antarctica. In other words we can say that butterflies are found wherever flowers are found. Secondly, different species of butterflies like different types of flowers and different types of flowers are found in different locations. This is the reason why all types of butterflies are not found at one place. Their occurrences vary from place to place.

In current times, destruction of habitats, application of pesticides in agriculture and horticulture etc. are destroying species of butterflies. But, what is a habitat? Well, habitat is a place where an animal or plant species naturally lives or grows. Butterflies can flourish in several different types of habitat, such as wetlands, meadows, wood's edge, rainforests, and even an urban garden. Unfortunately, many natural butterfly habitats are being destroyed by the elimination of weeds and native grasses from yards, chemical pesticides, parks and roadways, as well as the deforestation of tropical rainforests, the native habitat.

Rain forests are best habitats for butterflies, and of course for varieties of other organisms. Rain forests are warm wet places that are found around the world. These are homes to more than half of the entire species of plants and animals found in the world. Many species of insects including butterflies found in these forests have not yet been identified. Now, since many thousands of acres of rainforests are being cut down and burnt every single day, the homes of even not yet identified butterflies and other organisms are vanishing fast.

Create an ideal butterfly garden
Since, butterflies are so beautiful, so pretty, so delicate, so innocent creatures of God that we all love them; we all must contribute our part to protect them and to help them develop. For this we all can do a lot. For example we can plant flowering plants in our backyards. Not all flowers attract butterflies equally. Only the flowers containing plenty of nectar are liked by them. Zinnias contain plenty of nectar. So these flowers are liked by butterflies very much. There are many other flowers too that contain plenty of nectar nettles, violets, passion vines and milkweed, daisies, and marigolds are some other flowers that are liked by butterflies. So we must select particular spots around our houses and plant these flowering plants to attract butterflies. There should also be some woody plants in our court yard to provide shelter to butterflies during bad weather. Caterpillars of butterflies eat leaves of these plants. When they grow older they settle at one place get closed into a cocoon and develop into a tiny butterfly after metamorphosis.

Create a resting place for butterflies
We all see that butterflies do hard work by flying from flower to flower the whole day. Don’t they take rest? They need rest after feeding. They suck nectar in liquid state and relax for some time. For this they sit on some bricks, rock pieces or a broad leaves and bask with their wings wide spread. Their wings act as solar collectors and collect sufficient energy to raise the body temperature and to boost up the activities of butterflies. So we can create resting or basking places for butterflies by placing rock pieces, bricks and stones at the margins of our back yard so as to facilitate butterflies rest and relax.

Eggs of butterflies
Butterflies fix their eggs to leaves using a sticky, glue-like substance. Egg location on the plant depends on the species, but you can find them anywhere, from the leaves to the stems, and sometimes even inside a flower. Different species will also favor different plants. Monarch butterflies, for example, will often lay their eggs on milkweed. To attract butterflies, you'll need to give them a place to lay their eggs. Find out what butterflies are in your area and which plants they use to lay their eggs.

Do you know?

Many people who believe in God, love butterflies and regard them as messengers of God. So when any one of such people desires a wish to come true, he captures a butterfly carefully without causing any harm to it. Then he whispers his wish to the butterfly. Since, butterflies make no sound, they can’t tell the wish to any one but to the creator only. Is not it interesting. You too may send your message to God by whispering your wish to a butterfly, but not by catching it. Just try to see a basking butterfly, go near it carefully and whisper your wish to it. 

Key Words: butterflies, messengers, monarch, milkweed
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Smut of Doob Ghas (Cynodon) infect our grains

>> Sunday, August 24, 2014


Cynodon dactylon Pers. is a common grass that grows everywhere in India. It grows on demarcation lines of crop fields and plain land.It has traditional and religious values in Hindu and tribal societies. Though the grass is infected by varieties of pathogens, cases of infection by smut fungi can be seen everywhere while passing through roads and fields. It is reported that spores of the fungi spread through wind and infect our grain crops causing considerable losses in productivity (Mishra, 2007)1. It is suggested that fungicides that are applied on crop plants to protect them from the disease, should equally be sprayed on these grass plants that act as a reservoir.

Smuts are diseases of    cereals, Maize, grasses, onion, and sorghum, caused by many species of fungi. It is characterized by resting bodies (spores) that accumulate in soot like masses called sori, formed within blisters in seeds, leaves, stems, flower parts, and bulbs. The sori usually break up into a black powder that is readily dispersed by the wind. Many smut fungi enter embryos or seedling plants, develop systemically, and appear externally only near maturity. Other smuts are localized, infecting actively growing tissues. Control includes growing resistant varieties in noninfested soil, treating seeds with a fungicide, using disease-free transplants, and destroying infected plants or plant parts before the spores are released.

Cynodon dactylon is variously known as Couch grass, green couch (Australia), Bermuda grass (United States), kabuta (Fiji), dhoub grass (Bangladesh), Bahama grass, quick grass (South Africa), chepica brave, gramilla blanca (Peru), hierba-fina (Cuba), griming, tigriston (Suriname).

Cynodon dactylon is a variable perennial, creeping by means of stolons and rhizomes, eight to 40 culms, (rarely) to 90 cm high: leaves hairy or glabrous, three to seven spikes (rarely two), usually 3-6 cm long and in one whorl, or in robust forms up to ten spikes, sometimes in two whorls: spikelets 2-3 mm long, rachilla often bearing a reduced floret. It differs from Digitaria scalarum (African couch) in the vegetative stage in that there is no obvious membranous ligule where the leaf-blade joins the sheath.

Reference: Mishra, M. P.: "Succession of fungi and their eco-microbial involvement in the decay of Cynodon dactylon Pers", Ph.D. thesis, RU


Key Words: doob ghas, smut, crops, pesticide
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The Indian Lilac



Neem, the Indian Lilac tree has been reported to contain miraculous powers of healing in all its parts. It is popular as a medicinal tree since ancient time. It is described as a great medicinal tree an Ayurvedic as well as in other healthcare systems.

Neem is differently called in different languages. In Sanskrit it is called as Nimba and in English it is called as Margosa.Tazonomically, it is known as Azadirachta indica.
Neem grows in semitropical areas like India, Bangladesh and Pakistan. The extract of Neem contains antibacterial, anti-viral, anti-fungal, antiseptic, anti-parasitic, and anti-diabetic properties. It is reported to tone up digestive, urinary, circulatory and respiratory systems of our bodies.

Medicinal and Ethnoherbological Properties
Neem has been considered excellent for the care of dental system and the area of buccal cavity. The oil of Neem is applied to cure skin disorders. It is a blood purifier as it can remove toxic matter.

New researches recommend application of Neem extract for controlling diabetes or blood glucose. The gum of Neem can be prepared variously as food items and can be used for the management of blood glucose.

Neem oil is proved to be insect repellant, natural pesticide, fertilizer and skin care ingredient. Some researchers claim that the oil of Neem has contraceptive properties. If applied regularly, it can treat itchy scalp, dandruff, scalp soriasis, and scabies.

Key Words
Ayurvedic, tropical, blood glucose, medicinal, contraceptive

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Plant Trees in the Current Monsoon Session

>> Friday, August 22, 2014


We read in some good books that long - long ago, our earth was covered with dense vegetation. That vegetation gradually reduced as civilizations developed and passed away. And, during the current civilization we have been left with very less of it. Where have all the trees and bushes gone?

Humans cleared forests to build houses as their population grew up. They expanded agriculture to grow more food to feed generations. For this they cleared forests further and further. Developments demanded more and more vegetations to become aims of axes. Trees had to be cleared for the construction of roads, rail tracks, hospitals, schools etc and for many dams and river valley projects. Thousands and thousands of age old trees were cut for the construction of highways and multi-lane roads. You see a number of trees being cut along roadsides in and around your city just for broadening of roads. People and departments have justified reasons for these activities. We too cannot blame anyone for the destruction of this age old civilization of trees around us, and for the destruction of numerous wild animals including birds and insects that form important links of our biosphere, and the whole environment. How much time does a tree of average size take to grow up to its full natural size and maturity?

Well, say at least ten years or so. An old environmentalist may say that compensatory plantation in equal number might had been done in advance; at least ten years back to recover the loss expected to occur through cutting of trees after ten years at least. But who knew ten years ago about what is to be done after ten years. Not all of our plans can be designed and formulated much earlier, say ten or twenty years back due to several reasons. So, what to do now? Well, plant trees in this monsoon session. But why …?

Benefits from trees
Trees make oxygen and spread it in the air. Without oxygen we cannot live for a moment even. Without oxygen, the animal world will die away. While inhaling air we take the oxygen with it into our bodies and live in life. Carbon dioxide makes our atmosphere or rather our environment poisonous for us. It is one of the most potent gases to cause Global Warming. Trees consume this carbon dioxide and thereby make our environment safe for us.Trees also give us many other benefits. We get fruit and flowers from the trees. Trees provide us with fuel and timbers. In summer, they bear the scorching rays of the sun and give us cool shade under them. Trees in our forests draw the rain from the clouds floating in the sky. Trees in our forests check the quick flow of rain-water and thereby check the occurrence of high flood in our rivers. On the other hand, this slow process of water-flow gives us good water all throughout the year through streams and streamlets with their sweet melodious music.

Trees conserve our soil. This soil-conservation is very important for our crop -fields. Trees make land fertile by their fallen leaves. By their fallen leaves they make new soil for us. Most of the forest-products are the products from the trees in the forests, absentee of trees will cause a lot of harm to us and to our life. So the number of trees should be multiplied by the tree-plantation by us.
We should plant trees near our houses and near our villages with a view to raising new forests. We should plant trees on the two sides of the roads and paths and on the four sides of our corn-fields. We should plant trees on all the vacant places in our village on towns where we live, and we should advise all to do so.

Selection of trees for plantation
We should make good selection of trees to be planted, in consideration of the nature of land and the kind of climate. Cocoanut trees grow well in the sea-coasts. Plantain trees grow well near the ponds. We should know which place is fit for which tree. To know this we should get our soil tested by the experts and plant the kinds of trees accordingly. Collection of plants to be planted should be made from the Government nurseries in consultation with the experts there.

Time for tree-plantation and after care
Generally, rainy season is the best time for tree-plantation. Most of the tree-plants thrive well in rainy season. Still then, we should seek advice from the Government agricultural experts about the appropriate time for the plantation of a particular kind of tree. Only planting the trees is not enough. Because, planted trees may be destroyed by animals or otherwise, or may die for regular service of water. So we should be particular about the after-care of the planted trees. We should be very careful about the newly-planted trees.


Trees should be regularly planted to save the mankind and the animal world. Tree plantation and its after-care is a pleasing work too. We can get much pleasure in planting trees and in taking care of them. Students should plant trees in their school-compounds and in the front-yards, backyards and side-yards of their schools and near their own houses and in other places wherever possible. They should explain to their neighbours the goodness of tree-plantation and encourage them to plant and care new trees.

Key Words: Trees, rainy season, Students,

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BOOKS ON ENVIRONMENT BY DR. M. P. MISHRA

>> Saturday, June 28, 2014


S. CHAND’S ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION
CLASS XI
BY
DR. M. P. MISHRA



PURPOSE OF THE BOOK

This book on Environmental Education is specially meant for the Hon’ble Teachers
  • Who remain worried for the increasing environmental problems at local, regional, national and global levels;
  • Who have commitments for doing something or everything for averting harmful conditions in the environment;
  • Who wish to transform their students into teams of researchers, surveyors, scientists, environmental workers or even just the volunteers committed to stand fast and work harder for averting the bad impacts of activities of the human race which tends to threaten the flora, fauna, and natural settings of the Physical Environment;
  • Who feel pains in their hearts on increasing inequalities in terms of distribution of resources, in terms of gender, poverty, displacements, drowning people due to floods and rising sea- levels; and
  • Who dislike imparting environmental education merely to enable students pass their examinations, and to do projects on the basis of downloaded matter suggested by himself instead of going deep into the environment through actual scientific methods- identifying problems, assessing their seriousness, and coming out with some genuine and fruitful solutions.

THE SALIENT FEATURES OF THE BOOK
·   This book has been prepared in two colours in the International Style of designing and printing;
·   It has been prepared as per the syllabi of CBSE / ISC incorporating the latest national and global information, data and records;
·   The book contains sufficient matter presented in a very comprehensive style on every aspect of the syllabi of CBSE/ ISC and incorporates easy but important examples on each aspect;
·   The language of the book is easy to understand for even an average or below average student. It has a steady flow in every part of the book. The author has tried to present, define, discuss and explain even the easiest things in the style of an expert teacher, who while teaching comes down to the level of students and talks to them like a closest, honest and helping friend;
·   The whole book has been appropriately illustrated with uncommon and rare photographs, flow charts, tables and diagrams;
·   Care has been taken to use only the best, appropriate, wanted, necessary but rare illustrations, those too in sufficient number;
·   The book contains original and latest facts; appropriate, easy and well worded definitions and easy to understand examples. The matter has been presented in a style to stimulate among students the true love for nature and to encourage the readers to become a real environmentalist;
·   The content of the book through all the chapters incorporates Standard Questions and Exercises. Questions have been printed under different categories so as to facilitate the students to prepare well for various examinations in the easiest way. The entire coverage of questions is unique for the book due to which it becomes unique for even those who prepare for competitive examinations;
·   The content of the book is so designed that it becomes very useful for various academic, vocational and professional courses also;
·   The Projects and Investigative Studies- section of each chapter has been prepared on the basis of Exemplar Activities suggested in the syllabi. It is meant for students to make them do real investigations and researches rather than facilitating them in copying out or preparing imaginary reports and presenting in their examinations. If teachers and students follow the spirit and instructions of this section they can never sit idle. Rather, they will have to move outside their classrooms for surveys, samplings, data- collection, interviews, etc. and to do lots of works in laboratories before declaring the result or solution of the projects they undertake. No activity in this book allows students to produce imaginary project reports just after going through some magazines or downloaded internet materials. All the projects are so designed that they are based on local specific examples as enshrined in the spirit of syllabi. It is the opinion of the author that doing a project or preparing a Project Report on Bhopal Gas Victims without personal visits to Bhopal and practical contacts with victims is meaningless as most of the books available on the subject suggest our students just for their commercial gains.
·   Specific boxes have been placed here and there in the contents of different chapters of the book. These boxes contain outstanding and most important facts about environment that must be known to every intelligent student.

  

S. CHAND’S ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION
CLASS XII
BY
DR. M. P. MISHRA


 PURPOSE OF THE BOOK

This book on Environmental Education is specially meant for the Hon’ble Teachers
  • Who remain worried for the increasing environmental problems at local, regional, national and global levels;
  • Who have commitments for doing something or everything for averting harmful conditions in the environment;
  • Who wish to transform their students into teams of researchers, surveyors, scientists, environmental workers or even just the volunteers committed to stand fast and work harder for averting the bad impacts of activities of the human race which tends to threaten the flora, fauna, and natural settings of the Physical Environment;
  • Who feel pains in their hearts on increasing inequalities in terms of distribution of resources, in terms of gender, poverty, displacements, drowning people due to floods and rising sea- levels; and
  • Who dislike imparting environmental education merely to enable students pass their examinations, and to do projects on the basis of downloaded matter suggested by himself instead of going deep into the environment through actual scientific methods- identifying problems, assessing their seriousness, and coming out with some genuine and fruitful solutions.


THE SALIENT FEATURES OF THE BOOK
·   This book has been prepared in two colours in the International Style of designing and printing;
·   It has been prepared as per the syllabi of CBSE / ISC incorporating the latest national and global information, data and records;
·   The book contains sufficient matter presented in a very comprehensive style on every aspect of the syllabi of CBSE/ ISC and incorporates easy but important examples on each aspect;
·   The language of the book is easy to understand for even an average or below average student. It has a steady flow in every part of the book. The author has tried to present, define, discuss and explain even the easiest things in the style of an expert teacher, who while teaching comes down to the level of students and talks to them like a closest, honest and helping friend;
·   The whole book has been appropriately illustrated with uncommon and rare photographs, flow charts, tables and diagrams;
·   Care has been taken to use only the best, appropriate, wanted, necessary but rare illustrations, those too in sufficient number;
·   The book contains original and latest facts; appropriate, easy and well worded definitions and easy to understand examples. The matter has been presented in a style to stimulate among students the true love for nature and to encourage the readers to become a real environmentalist;
·   The content of the book through all the chapters incorporates Standard Questions and Exercises. Questions have been printed under different categories so as to facilitate the students to prepare well for various examinations in the easiest way. The entire coverage of questions is unique for the book due to which it becomes unique for even those who prepare for competitive examinations;
·   The content of the book is so designed that it becomes very useful for various academic, vocational and professional courses also;
·   The Projects and Investigative Studies- section of each chapter has been prepared on the basis of Exemplar Activities suggested in the syllabi. It is meant for students to make them do real investigations and researches rather than facilitating them in copying out or preparing imaginary reports and presenting in their examinations. If teachers and students follow the spirit and instructions of this section they can never sit idle. Rather, they will have to move outside their classrooms for surveys, samplings, data- collection, interviews, etc. and to do lots of works in laboratories before declaring the result or solution of the projects they undertake. No activity in this book allows students to produce imaginary project reports just after going through some magazines or downloaded internet materials. All the projects are so designed that they are based on local specific examples as enshrined in the spirit of syllabi. It is the opinion of the author that doing a project or preparing a Project Report on Bhopal Gas Victims without personal visits to Bhopal and practical contacts with victims is meaningless as most of the books available on the subject suggest our students just for their commercial gains.
·   Specific boxes have been placed here and there in the contents of different chapters of the book. These boxes contain outstanding and most important facts about environment that must be known to every intelligent student.


·   This book incorporates a unique section entitled “WEB-LINKS” which contains web-links to all the important institutions on national and international levels that are associated with the protection and preservation of the global environment. It is a new and trendsetter step in the field of modern book publishing. Observing the changes in the teaching- learning processes, use of latest technologies in teaching in advanced institutes and centres of excellence, the author of this book has marched ahead in this new direction so as to open the world environment before readers of the book through computers and the internet.

KEY WORDS: Environment,Dr. M. P. Mishra, S.Chand
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OH! THESE SMART PIGEONS

>> Saturday, March 1, 2014

I don’t know if pigeons love water but my general observation so far has revealed that pigeons avoid entering into water. When ever it rains they fly away under some shady place. Yes, they can sit in rainy conditions to enjoy light rain or to wait for the command of their group leader. I don’t know for sure.

But, for sure, I can say that anyone who lives in Ranchi, knows about Marwari 10+2 High School established in the heart of the city by local Marwari Community around 1935 and taken over by the state around 1980.To my friends living outside India in other countries, let me tell that this Government School is located in Ranchi the capital of the  newly formed state of India. Being lover of all creatures some Marwari people use to feed birds by placing sacs of grains on the top. And this is the reason that hundreds of pigeons flock on the roof and come down in the afternoon to walk on the ground when students remain in their classrooms. No sooner than a student or any one of the school passes by than the pigeons fly up to sit on the roof.

Following the Mid-day meal programme the school campus became a sanctuary of crows too or any one can say since pigeons don’t show interest in cooked food it were crows to enjoy the leftovers. Some students take food carelessly and drop rice on floor. The rice on floor is collected and placed on a marginal spot where crows assemble to eat it away. At the same time pigeons remain busy in searching grains on the ground and show least interest in crows. Being cunning by nature crows not only eat cooked rice leftovers, they spot weaker and sick pigeons, approach to them and peck them by their beak so as to cause injury. Gradually the pigeon gets infection and becomes sick. The crows plan final attack on such pigeons and eat them away. Now, this is the reason why the number of pigeons has reduced gradually from this habitat.

Since last two years or so, the new Principal of the school, Mr. Braj Kishor Prasad, a noble man has made such arrangement that not a single grain of rice is wasted and thrown anywhere in the campus. Since, crows dislike grains kept on the roof and there is no cooked food anywhere left for them, they have stopped coming to this place. Thus innocent pigeons could be saved. So this was a short story about in impact of crow-population on pigeons.


Since last dew days, the people of Ranchi are experiencing a bad whether. Since the ground of the school has been lowered following the rising level of roads around, the rain water gets accumulated in the ground and in spite of many written request nobody still came forward to extend financial support to raise the ground. Since, a Government School does not have sufficient fund for such work the ground becomes a pond during rains. The local Marwari Community, as usual, sent sacs of maize and the sacs were placed atop the roof. It rained heavily in the following night. Lots of maize grains were dropped on the ground from the torn sacs and the grains had remained scattered on the ground. When the ground became a pond and the campus was filled with water, grains became soft after being soaked for the whole night. Since, pigeons probably experience it hard to break the dried gains placed on the roof; they came down and found lots of grains dipped in the water. When any one of the pigeons ate the grain he found it delicious    and then informed all the pigeons about that case. Now most of the pigeons came down and started searching soaked grains. Now see the picture taken by me through my mobile camera.







Key Words: Marwari, Government, pigeons, crows, mid-day-meal
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Rescue of a bat

>> Sunday, February 16, 2014


Bats are mammals, and mammals acquire a number of adaptations that other animals. A Number of bats live in my institute and spend nights in buildings. When we go there in the morning we see numerous seeds of Drooping Ashoka, Tamarind etc on the floor. Sometimes they create problems for sweepers who leave the institution after cleaning the building properly in the evenings and have to sweep the floor again. However, it seems a pretty exercise to me because the seeds remind me of bats that inhabit my institution’s building and again because they have started coming here and inhabiting the place since the trees of Drooping Ashoka and other trees and plants planted by me long back in 1991 on the occasion of the World Environment Day are adult now.

This morning, I saw a naughty crow trickily picking something and flying up. The thing that it was knocking with its pointed beak looked like a polythene bag thrown earlier by some careless being. When I drew attention of my principal he told me that the thing may be a bat. Soon I saw that the crow had lifted the back in its beak but the same somehow escaped but was dropped on the ground. I soon approached and threatened the crow to fly away. And the crow flew away. I started taking photographs of the bat but it started hiding it with its vast wings. Some how with the help of a stick I turned it right and no sooner than it came in proper position, it flew towards the drooping Ashoka trees and was soon vanished behind leaves. Thus the poor but the cleaver bat was rescued. And yes, it did not spare me and tried to frighten me also by showing its teeth. See for yourself.



When I approached



When I started taking photograph



When the camera flashed



When I turned it with the help of a stick

I could not photograph it as it flew in no time



Key Words: mammals, bat, rescue, adaptation
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Bio-invasion

>> Tuesday, February 4, 2014


Invasive species are organisms that are usually transported by human beings from foreign areas. These species successively colonize native ecosystems. These have been a major threat to native species because these species show predatory behavior, cause changes in habitat and often disrupt the process of ecosystems. One example is the introduction of Australian Brush Tail Possum which caused decline in the number of native birds in New Zealand. There are a number of other examples also that justify the degrading impacts of invasive species in a new habitat. The spice cardamom is a problem in the lowland moist forests of Sri Lanka and Southern India. On the other hand, the invasion of Black Pepper is causing serious threats to the biodiversity in the forest edges of Malaysia. The Chromolaena odorata which is a shrub and which has its own values as a fallow crop in Indonesia has become the single most invasive plant in the Nature Reserves of the Tropical Regions. The Parthenium hysterophorus, a noxious weed which competes with crop plants, causes health hazards to humans and cattle. This weed is highly allergic and reportedly causes asthma and other diseases in human beings. This exotic species was introduced from the tropical America. It was first reported in 1957 from Maharashtra.


 The increasing applications of genetically engineered microorganisms and their establishments in the natural habitats are causing potential risks to the existing plants and animals. Some traits of the genetically engineered microorganisms harm the species on which most of the natural organisms depend for their survival. Secondly, the mixing of the genetic stock and the subsequent loss caused by this event and, the general competitive superiority of the genetically modified organisms lead to the degradation of biodiversity in a region.

Key Words:invasive species,black pepper, genetic stock
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