A continuous interaction exists between organisms and their environment. For example: We see organisms doing different types of actions with some or the other components of environment-
· A rat digs long wandering tunnel inside the earth
· Ants carry tiny pieces of soil and deposit somewhere to make a highly engineered and amazing ant-hill
· Humans construct bridges, flyovers, sea-tunnels, flood-resisting thick walls of steel built against the inflow of sea water, quake proof building etc. Humans install high towers, explore minerals, and dig deep oil wells to exploit away all the fossil fuels.
· The tiny caterpillar too does something that can be said as interaction- as it eats away leaves of plants
What the environment on the whole or its components on individual level do, to these organisms in interaction? Well, the rainwater fills tunnels of rats and makes them homeless; it washes away the anthill. An insect eating bird lands on the lower branch adjacent to the leaf being eaten by the caterpillar and dives down to catch the worm in its beak. Big structures constructed or installed by humans invite seriously dangerous calamities. This is the fundamental story of interaction in nature. Now, the whole world observes that a number of environmental problems have stood against the survival of the human race. Let us investigate in the following chapter- the Factors that affect the environment adversely and assess the possible interactions from the side of Nature or the Environment.