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Saturday, April 30, 2011

How to reach there ?




Fire at night

The disposal of dry leaves fallen on the floor appears as a great problem before workers of Municipal Corporation ( though it should not). It is observed that in order to escape the notice of environment lovers, pollution control bodies etc.  workers of the corporation have resorted a new way. Yes, the new way of burning leaves at night.

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Wednesday, April 27, 2011

Applications of Biotechnology

The application of bio- technology can be categorized as Specific Applications and General Applications
Specific Applications
(a) Genetic Engineering: The experiments of Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer (1973) pertaining to the removal of specific gene from a bacterium and the insertion of the same gene into another bacterium, marks the beginning of the Recombinant DNA- technology which is also called as the Genetic Engineering. In their experiments, the “restriction enzymes” were used for cutting the segments of DNA. The Enzymes are specific proteins which can speed up biochemical processes without being altered in the chemical reactions.

The science of changing the pattern of development and behavior of an organism by making alterations in its genes is called as genetic engineering. The organisms produced by altering their genetic make up through DNA recombinant technology or through genetic engineering are called as Genetically Modified Organisms or GMOs. In agriculture, GM-crops are also being produced through genetic engineering. The food produced from genetically modified crops is called as GM- food.

The genetically engineered organism in which a foreign gene has been introduced to obtain desired results is called as a Transgenic Organism. Such an organism may be a plant, an animal, bacteria or fungi. These organisms are developed by injecting a foreign gene into the embryo or the fertilized egg of an organism.
Importance of genetic engineering
. Through genetic engineering the alterations in the genetic make up of an organism can be done successfully,
. Genetic engineering can be employed in increasing food production from plants and animals,
. It is applied in the diagnosis of diseases and improvements in the medical treatment.

(b) Plant Tissue Culture: The technique of growing plant tissues on artificial nutrient medium under laboratory conditions, so as to produce new plants, is called as plant tissue culture. These may be the Meristem Culture, Embryo Culture and Anther Culture and so on.

(c) Monoclonal Antibody: The specialized types of protein molecules produced in the laboratory are called as monoclonal antibodies. These are produced naturally in our bodies when any bacteria or virus invades it. Monoclonal antibodies are produced in our blood and protect us from different types pf diseases. These bodies are used in identifying different types of cells. These are also employed in many diagnostic tests for bacteria and viruses. The experiments on using monoclonal antibodies for fighting against cancer are also going on across the world.

The genetic engineers have engineered the bacterial species E. coli to synthesize a specific protein called as Interferon. These proteins are produced naturally by body cells to oppose viral infections. The biologically synthesized interferon has been tested and found successful.

(d) Synthesis of Enzymes: The Proteinaceous chemical substances of biological origin that accelerate biochemical reactions without undergoing any change are called as enzymes. The term “enzyme” was coined by William Kuhne in 1867 on the basis of his studies on yeast.

Specific enzymes can be synthesized through the application of bio- technology. These enzymes are used in various processes like removal of stains, softening of fabrics, preparation of digestible foods, processing of meat and, even the treatment of cancer.

(e) Synthesis of Biodegradable Plastics: Bio- technology is currently employed in the synthesis of plastic which is biodegradable i.e. unlike other plastics; this plastic can be broken down into simpler substances by microorganisms.

The biodegradable plastic is made from lactic acid which is produced at the time of bacterial fermentation of plant materials like discarded stalks of corn. In the process, molecules of Lactic Acid are chemically grouped to form the biodegradable plastic. In fact, the biodegradable plastic is a material which has most of the properties of plastic except the property of being non- biodegradable.
(f) Blood Substitute: Today the number of people needing blood transfusion is increasing due to frequent accidents and diseases. In view of these facts, biotechnologists are trying to synthesize artificial blood through bio- technology. The biotechnologists like Mary   L. Nucci and Abraham Abuchowski (1998) are likely to get success in their experiments in this regard.

(g) Bio- technology and Mining: Different types of bacteria are being currently employed in the extraction of different metals like copper, zinc, lead and other metals. These bacteria act on the metallic compounds available inside the earth and help in the isolation of respective metals.

(h) Bio- technology and Blood Clotting Protein: Bio- technology has many types of dramatic applications in the field of medicine. It has produced Factor- VIII (1986), which is a blood clotting protein and which is not produced in haemophilic persons. Under these conditions the haemophilic people are always at the risk of bleeding to death. In the process of synthesis of Factor VIII, the human genes having codes of production of blood clotting protein are transplanted into the haemophilic person. The factor VIII is being produced commercially since 1992.

Cloning: The bio- technology of production of cells or organisms that are originally derived from a single original cell or organism by asexual method under laboratory conditions is called as cloning. The copies of organisms produced during cloning have identical genetic make up and are known as clones. We can define a clone as an individual cell or organism which has been grown by a single body cell and which is genetically identical to its parent cell.
During 1950s, scientists cloned frogs and by 1980s they cloned mice. During 1996, Ian Wilmot and his team of researchers achieved success for the first time in cloning an adult sheep. They named the clone as Dolly. Scientists at Texas A & M University in College Station produced the first cloned cat on Dec. 22, 2001 through the Nuclear Transfer Technique. They named the clone – cc or the carbon copy. It is hoped that scientists may one day become successful in cloning extinct animals also.

General Applications of Bio- technology         
(a)Applications in food and beverage industry: A number of food products are produced on industrial scale through the fermentation technology. Some of those products are wine, idlis, yoghurt, cheese, mycoproteins, quorn, bread etc. Besides this bio- technology helps in the production of different vitamins, amino acids and vinegar etc.

(b)Application of Bio- technology in Pharmaceuticals: Modification of microorganisms, animals and plants so as to get maximum yield of medicinally useful substances is called as pharmaceutical bio- technology. Some important examples are being given below-
  (I) Production of human insulin from non- human sources.
 (ii) Production of hormones like Interferon, Cytokinins, Steroids and human growth hormones.
 (iii)Gene-therapy for prevention and control of diseases.
 (iv) Development of vaccines and antibodies.

 (c)Application of bio- technology in Agriculture: Tissue culture, cloning and hybridization are important bio- technologies that are being developed in agriculture today. Tissue culture is important for the propagation of high yielding varieties of plants for agriculture and floriculture. Hybridization is the technique of combining properties of two plants or animals to produce one better hybrid plant or animal. Though this process frequently occurs in nature, the adoption of this technology has supported the agriculture to produce more food to feed growing population in many countries. Similarly, hybridization technology has supported animal husbandry to produce more milk and meat.

The application of bio- technology in agriculture can make it more sustainable. The introduction of bio-fertilizers in soil can improve it’s composition besides making it fertile in a natural way. Similarly, the introduction of bio-pesticides can control pests through natural ways without contaminating the natural environment. The development of disease resistant and pest resistant crop varieties through bio- technological methods has further supported the agriculture.

Scientists are continuously experimenting for the improvement of crop plants like potato, tomato, cabbage and other vegetables and fruits as well as other crop plants like sugarcane, wheat, maize etc. to obtain better yield. Some new crop varieties like Triticale (a man made cereal) have also been developed to add nutrients in our food and increase food production.

(d) Application of bio- technology in Pollution Control: The natural tendency of microorganisms can be exploited through bio- technology for solving the problem of wastes in the environment. The crop residues and animal waste are used in making manure by the activity of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The bacterial species Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been developed to eat away the oil spilled on the sea surface. Solid wastes like crop residues can be put inside a biogas digester to produce biogas, a most suitable source of rural energy.

In nature, green plants control atmospheric carbon dioxide by utilizing it in photosynthesis. Hence, plantation of more and more fast growing trees may be an important bio- technological method of controlling carbon dioxide level of atmosphere. Plants fix carbon dioxide by the help of specific enzyme Ribulose- bi- phosphate Carboxilase. The function of this enzyme is controlled genetically. Hence, scientists are trying to manipulate this enzyme to increase the rate of photosynthesis for greater reduction of atmospheric carbon dioxide level.

(e) Application of bio- technology in Waste Water Treatment: The treatment of waste water comprises three major steps- the Primary Treatment, the Secondary Treatment and the Tertiary Treatment.                                           The primary treatment comprises many sub- steps like sedimentation, chemical coagulation and precipitation. These sub- steps remove most of the physical impurities or pollutants. The secondary treatment comprises biological process involving bio- technology of employing bacteria, fungi, algae etc. for the breaking down of complex pollutants. In this process, the effluent is passed through a microbial slime layer. The microbes present in this layer break down the organic and nitrogenous waste liberating carbon dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. Different types of microorganisms present in the slime layer are categorized below-
            Bacteria         Pseudomonas sp., Flavobacterium sp. and Alcaligenes etc.
            Fungi               Yeast and Saprolegnia sp. etc.
            Algae                Stigeoclonium, Ulothrix, Phormidium and Chlorella.

(f) Application of bio- technology in the degradation of pesticides: Different species of bacteria and fungi tend to degrade pesticides. These microorganisms can be genetically manipulated to degrade more and more of them. Some species of bacteria like Pseudomonas sp., Flavobacterium, Azotobacter, E. coli and Acromobacter tend to degrade different pesticides. It has been reported that a mixture of Phenerocheate (a fungus) and enzyme peroxidase in suitable proportion can degrade DDT.

(g) Bioremediation: The application of biotic agents like microorganisms in the correction and recovery of environmental damage is called as bioremediation. The removal of oil spilled on sea water by the help of bacteria is one example of bioremediation.

(h) Industrial Applications of bio- technology: Bio- technology is currently being applied in many areas of industry like the production of stain remover, detergents, bread, biotech-polyester, vitamins; stone washed jeans, bleached paper etc. Here are some examples-
(i) Detergents containing protease enzyme can remove stains of proteinaceous nature both on fabrics and lenses,
(ii) Detergents containing lipase enzyme can remove stains of oil and grease, and those containing amylase can remove starch grains stuck with fabrics.
Now a day, polyesters are being synthesized from corn starch feed stock through the application of bio- technology. The enzyme cellulose is used for fading of jeans.

Key Words : biotechnology, genetic engineering, water treatment, enzyme, feed stock, cellulose, GM Food, monoclonal antibody, bioremediation

Tuesday, April 26, 2011

Scope of biotechnology

Bio- technology has scope in the fields of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, Molecular Medicine, Forensic Science, Microbial Genetics, Environmental Sciences etc. According to Dr. P. M. Bhargava (2003), - Biotechnology may be as old as human civilization but modern biotechnology is less than three decades old. Traditional Biotechnology that led to the development of processes for producing products like yogurt, Vinegar, alcohol and cheese was entirely empirical and bereft of any understanding of the mechanisms that led to the product. There was no possibility of a deliberate design to produce a desired new product.

Agriculture and Animal Husbandry
The scope of bio- technological applications in Agriculture and Animal Husbandry is concerned with- the development of disease and pest resistant varieties of plants and animals; the production of food containing high nutrient value; the production of vaccines and the development of drought resistant crop varieties.

Molecular Medicine
This field of Bio- technology incorporates- disease diagnosis through cultural and different biotechnological methods and through Gene Therapy (cure of diseases through improvement and modification of genes.Gene therapy is the insertion, alteration, or removal of genes within an individual's cells and biological tissues to treat disease. It is a technique for correcting defective genes that are responsible for disease development. The most common form of gene therapy involves the insertion of functional genes into an unspecified genomic location in order to replace a mutated gene, but other forms involve directly correcting the mutation or modifying normal gene that enables a viral infection. Although the technology is still in its infancy, it has been used with some success.

 Forensic Science
This science relates to the identification of criminals and researches pertaining to crime. Forensic science (often shortened to forensics) is the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to a legal system. This may be in relation to a crime or a civil action. The word forensic comes from the Latin adjective forensis, meaning "of or before the forum." In Roman times, a criminal charge meant presenting the case before a group of public individuals in the forum. Both the person accused of the crime and the accuser would give speeches based on their sides of the story. The individual with the best argument and delivery would determine the outcome of the case. This origin is the source of the two modern usages of the word forensic – as a form of legal evidence and as a category of public presentation.

 This field of bio- technology, the Forensic Science incorporates- the DNA- matching tests; the establishment of genetic relationships; DNA-mapping; DNA- Fingerprinting and Genetic Analysis etc.
 Microbial Genetics
 Microbial genetics is a subject area within microbiology and genetic engineering. It studies the genetics of micro organisms. This involves the study of the genotype of microbial species and also the expression system in the form of phenotypes. It also involves the study of genetic processes taking place in these micro organisms i.e., recombination etc.

In a nutshell, this field of bio- technology incorporates- Study of microorganisms and their genetic make up; the study of genetic behavior and possibilities of genetic alterations; recombination etc.These microbial Genetics is also concerned with the study of bio- weapons; bio-wars and bio- fuels.

Environmental Science
 This field of bio- technology incorporates- studies pertaining to the detection of microorganisms causing health hazards; environmental pollutions and the monitoring of environmental problems concerned with the living world. According to a report, “Biotechnology is also being used for dealing with environmental problems Fears are also being expressed about the implication of advances in biotechnology in terms of release of harmful organisms developed through recombinant DNA technology. In view of this, rules and laws have been framed from time to time to safeguard against the risks, which the recombinant DNA technology poses to the clean and friendly environment”.

Key Words: biotechnology, scope, agriculture, genetic engineering, gene therapy, DNA

Sunday, April 24, 2011

Origin and development of biotechnology

The pioneering achievement in the field of Bio- technology was the production of greater genetic varieties of plants and animals through the techniques of Hybridization in 5000BC. It was through hybridization that present day High Yielding Varieties of plants and animals were evolved. This technique is being continuously used in improved forms in our programmes concerned with food production. Norman E. Borlaug, the American Agriculturist, received the Nobel Prize for the year 1970 for his important contribution of increasing the world food supply through different techniques like hybridization, Selective Breeding and Gene Transfer. Hybridization is the technology or process of crossing individuals of opposite sex of different species so as to produce off springs of combined character.

 The Indian Scientist Dr. M.S.Swaminathan (1967) initiated and developed technologies for increasing food production in India. Dr.Swaminathan is now being called as the Father of Economic Ecology.

In 1960, Werner Arber discovered specific enzymes called as Restriction Enzyme in bacteria. These enzymes can cut the DNA strand of an organism at a precise point. Further, in 1973, Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer became successful in removing a specific gene from a bacterium and inserting it into another bacterium by the application of the restriction enzyme. This discovery led to the development of the Recombinant DNA Technology which is commonly called as Genetic Engineering.

Image : Werner Arber
(Biozentrum News)

Another major achievement in the field of bio- technological development was the manipulation of bacteria to produce Human Protein (1977). Afterwards, the American Molecular Biologist Lydia Villa- Komaroff developed basic bio- technology for the production of Rat Insulin with the help of genetically engineered bacteria. By using genetically engineered bacteria, scientists became successful in producing Human Insulin in 1978 and within a period of 5 years the Human Insulin became the first biopharmaceutical product in the market to control Diabetes Mellitus.

Key Words : biotechnology, restriction enzyme, recombinant DNA technology, human insulin

Saturday, April 23, 2011

Autumn exposes nests of crows against wind, rain and human eye

Nests of Crows

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Feeding girl children

The Social Environment

Love and respect for girl children may help correct the dangerous gender- imbalance in India

Data from Census of India 2011 show a dangerous imbalance in sex-ratio in many states.Here is a direct quote from  an important paper - 
A distinctive dimension of Asia’s recent population dynamics has been its unexpected “masculinisation” – the increasing proportion of males in its population. While the sex ratio of almost all other populations in the world tends to gradually diminish, as a result of increased life expectancy favourable to women, the proportion of boys in Asia’s population of children started to rise during the late 1970s, a trend that was not identified immediately for lack of proper data. Initially, the huge gap observed between the number of men and women represented, to a large extent, the legacy of mortality conditions that had been unfavourable to women during the past century. But it emerged that a new, unexpected phenomenon was also underway: sex ratio at birth was tilting towards boys, in a way that had never before been recorded in demographic history.

The paper while concluding the matter states -
With hundreds of thousands of female foetuses aborted every year in Asia, coupled with the prospects of deep social tensions in the future, countries in the region now have the duty to launch a head-on campaign against sex-selective abortions, one of the most upsetting manifestations of gender-based violence recognised by the 1995 Beijing Platform for Action. The past decades, which have seen greater attention to and some progress made towards women’s empowerment, should not lead to their demographic marginalisation in Asia. While accelerating social change is often a slow and difficult venture – particularly when it involves the basic gender and family arrangements on which all social relationships rest – societies need to find their own solutions to reverse the current trend towards gender exclusion. Even if the strategies for such a battle are many, the objective remains clear, and resources for actions should follow. The time to act has come, as decisions and initiatives taken today will shape the Asian society in which young generations will live tomorrow.  

"Sex-ratio imbalance in Asia:  Trends, consequences and policy responses by Christophe Z Guilmoto LPED/IRD, Paris

In Hindu traditions girls are fed and worshiped during Navaratra as "Nav Durga". Many Hindus report that  girls are hard to find these days  for feeding and worshiping during Navaratra. Promotion of such thoughts and   traditions, gender equality and reduction in the current trend of  "masculinisation",  in ways that may be acceptable to all sections may protect our societies in India.

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Key Words : Census, India, gender, girl children, Navaratra, Nav Durga, masculinisation

Identify this medicinal herb

Visitors are requested to identify this plant of immense traditional medicinal importance.

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Thursday, April 21, 2011

Bauhinia: a beautiful plant with scented white flowers

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Bryophyllum: a wonderful plant

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Bryophyllum is a section in the genus of plant known as Kalanchoe of family Crassulaceae. This section comprises about 20 to 30 species. These are native to South Africa, Madagascar, and Asia. The plant is notable for its vegetative propagation through leaves.

Succulent herbs, subshrubs or shrubs. Leaves opposite, whorled or alternate, ± succulent. Inflorescence terminal, usually corymb-like. Flowers 4-merous, usually pendulous, brightly coloured. Calyx shorter than the corolla; sepals 4, usually connate below. Corolla gamopetalous; lobes usually shorter than corolla tube, spreading or reflexed. Stamens 8. Carpels 4, ± connate below.

Traditional Medicinal Value
Bryophyllum is a wonderful plant known for its medicinal values since ancient times Bryophyllum has been used in folk medicines.

Though it is not a native of India, it was introduced into the country by Europeans as an ornamental plant. Gradually it started finding its use in Indian traditional systems of medicine like Ayurveda, Unani and Homoeopathy.

Bryophyllum is also called immortal, Resurrection, and Azooba (wonderful) plant. Its leaf has been hailed as "Miracle Leaf". Bryophyllum leaves are used for treatment of problems related to skin and blood circulation, though it is also used to keep blood sugar level under check and control inflammation.

A recent study by the department of pharmacology, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, has found that the aqueous extract of Bryophyllum leaf can act as a pain-killer. "Bryophyllum leaf aqueous extract possesses antinociceptive (reduces sensitivity to pain), anti-inflammatory (reduces inflammation) and hypoglycemic (brings down high blood sugar levels) properties," the study pointed out. Other medicinal properties attributed to Bryophyllum include its ability to fight microbes, fungi, allergy, tumours, ulcers, bacteria, viruses and insects. It is also regarded as a natural sedative.

Key Words: Madagascar, traditional, medicinal value, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic

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Bryophyllum is a section in the genus of plant known as Kalanchoe of family Crassulaceae. This section comprises about 20 to 30 species. These are native to South Africa, Madagascar, and Asia. The plant is notable for its vegetative propagation through leaves.

Succulent herbs, subshrubs or shrubs. Leaves opposite, whorled or alternate, ± succulent. Inflorescence terminal, usually corymb-like. Flowers 4-merous, usually pendulous, brightly coloured. Calyx shorter than the corolla; sepals 4, usually connate below. Corolla gamopetalous; lobes usually shorter than corolla tube, spreading or reflexed. Stamens 8. Carpels 4, ± connate below.

Traditional Medicinal Value
Bryophyllum is a wonderful plant known for its medicinal values since ancient times Bryophyllum has been used in folk medicines.

Though it is not a native of India, it was introduced into the country by Europeans as an ornamental plant. Gradually it started finding its use in Indian traditional systems of medicine like Ayurveda, Unani and Homoeopathy.

Bryophyllum is also called immortal, Resurrection, and Azooba (wonderful) plant. Its leaf has been hailed as "Miracle Leaf". Bryophyllum leaves are used for treatment of problems related to skin and blood circulation, though it is also used to keep blood sugar level under check and control inflammation.

A recent study by the department of pharmacology, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, has found that the aqueous extract of Bryophyllum leaf can act as a pain-killer. "Bryophyllum leaf aqueous extract possesses 
antinociceptive (reduces sensitivity to pain), anti-inflammatory (reduces inflammation) and hypoglycemic (brings down high blood sugar levels) properties," the study pointed out. Other medicinal properties attributed to Bryophyllum include its ability to fight microbes, fungi, allergy, tumours, ulcers, bacteria, viruses and insects. It is also regarded as a natural sedative.

Key Words : Madagascar, traditional, medicinal value, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic

Tuesday, April 12, 2011

Blooms of Chrysalidocarpus lutescens- the Areca Palm

Areca Palm, taxonomically known as Chrysalidocarpus lutescens is a beautiful landscape plant of Arecaceae family, native to Madagascar(USDA 2010).It  is also known as Golden Palm or the Butterfly Palm due to fantastic bending of its rachis and leaflets.

This beautiful landscape plant is introduced in India and it can be seen growing majestically in gardens, lawns, and along boundaries etc. It can be grown both out- and indoors. in tropical and sub-tropical regions. It can grow up to a height of 5 to 12 meters. It has multiple stems that emerge out from its base. Some people grow it in flower pots though the plant does not look very comfortable in that condition.

Leaves of Areca Palm are compound, with arched rachis - 2to 3 m long and pinnate with 40 to 60 pairs of leaflets. The plant produces offsets that can be used for propagation after cutting off when mature.Foliaage is bronze- green with shiny texture.

Areca Palm grows well in sun. However it can also be grown in partial shades in mildly acidic soil having pH range from 6.1 to 6.5. It is a drought tolerant plant. It blooms from late spring to early summer. The bloom colour is yellow-orange to bright yellow.

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Propagation of the plant is mostly done by cutting and sowing rhizomes, tubers, corms, bulbs or offsets. Seeds can be collected from ripe fruits but they do not store well for a long time and hence need to be sown early.

Key Words: Palm, USDA, arched, shade, offset

Sunday, April 10, 2011

From Gudi Padwa in Ralegan Siddhi to New Delhi

The Social Environment

Ralegan Siddhi, the home town of Anna Hazare in Maharashtra’s Ahmed Nagar district resolved to end corruption on the day of Gudi Padwa, the New Year’s Day celebrated all over Maharashtra. A procession was organised on the day with women in traditional 9 yard- saries moving in line with firm resolution for the New Year.

Image: A march to end corruption on the Gudi Padwa ( taken from the Hindu)

The anti-corruption movement was taking momentum across the state and to mark their resolution to abolish corruption in their state about 80 per cent of the residents of Ralegan Siddhi town erected a Gudi with black coloured cloth against the traditional red as they use on this day. It is important to note that the anti-corruption movement was launched by Anna Hazare, the noted social activist and the movement was reportedly firm to get passed the JanLokpal Bill drafted by RTI activist Arvind Kejriwal and Santosh Hegde, the Lokayukta of Karnataka through the Central Government. The movement is of the opinion that passing of the Bill would end corruption in every India state.

Image : Anna Hazare, the Social Activist on his march to end corruption

The Gudi on the occasion of Gudi Padwa is placed outside every home to mark a new beginning and the new beginning this time was to start a life without corruption. Anna Hajare undertook a historic task of an indefinite fast- unto- death with thousands of followers that later multiplied to many times, in most of the Indian states.

The people in the movement were firm with their resolution on ending corruption and the social activist had reportedly told the movement not to come back without getting passed the bill. And yes … Anna Hazare has now become able to come back as the government at least now conceded his demands.

The Hindu((April 9, 2011) reports – Hectic parleys between the Centre and emissaries of Anna Hajare, the social activist, finally bore fruit late on Friday night(night of April 8, 2011) as the social activist announced that he would end his fast – unto – death on Saturday morning. It took several rounds of talks within the government on the issues relating to the proposed joint draft committee. The demands of the social activist included setting up of a joint committee having 50 percent members from the civil society and having a non- political person as its head. At this point it is important to note that the government had proposed the name of Pranab Mukherjee for this post. From the side of Anna Hajare, the names proposed for this post were the former Chief Justice of India, J.S.Verma or former Supreme Court Judge, Santosh Hedge. Later, the social activist proposed the name of former Union Minister Shanti Bhushan as co-chairman.

Following Anna Hajare’s march for fast-unto-death, urban people from all over the country had started supporting him by organising meetings, sending messages and organising demonstrations in various ways. As per reports, many known corrupt persons too were in the line of supporters from different parts of the country. However, the social activist got success.

It is important to note that Baba Ramdeo, the so called Yog Guru by his followers in modern time had already started raising his voice against corruption some years back and he is still on his way in his own style and action, but it was Anna Hajare got the work done on record. The Hindu writes in its editorial of 9th April issue -The stand-off over corruption -Few could have anticipated that Anna Hazare's movement for a stronger Lokpal bill would generate such an extraordinary groundswell of public support, particularly among the urban middle class. By the fourth day of his indefinite fast, the nationwide protests led by 71-year-old social activist have forced the Centre to drop the anti-corruption bill it had drafted, to agree to prepare a new and stronger draft in consultation with civil society activists, and to desperately seek an agreement to end the crisis. It is imperative that the Manmohan Singh government seeks to resolve the remaining differences — on whether the committee must be formally notified and whether a civil society nominee should head it — by forsaking obstinate stances and respecting the popular mood. With the Centre rejecting the positions staked out by Mr. Hazare on these two issues, he has called for a nationwide jail bharo on April 13. It is not certain how long the deadlock will continue. But in the welter of protests and the general anger about corruption, the key details about what this specific crusade is really about must not be lost.

Essentially, the battle is to formulate a Lokpal bill that will allow for impartial and effective inquiries into complaints against public officials. The civil activist camp is correct in pointing out that the official draft is weak and ineffectual. For instance, rather than allow the Lokpal (or ombudsman) to probe all corruption-related complaints against public officials received from the general public, it restricts such inquires to those forwarded by the Lok Sabha Speaker or the Rajya Sabha Chairman. The reluctance of the Centre to draft a tough Lokpal bill has been coupled with a longstanding reluctance to enact it; one or another version of the bill has been introduced in the Lok Sabha eight times since 1968 only to find the House being dissolved before it could be passed. Mr. Hazare and his supporters have demanded that the Jan Lokpal bill drafted by civil society activists be adopted instead. But this piece of legislation, although having much more teeth, is not without its share of serious flaws. For instance, it stipulates that the selection committee for the Lokpal must include Nobel laureates of Indian origin and recent Magsaysay award winners. It also makes drastic changes in the existing criminal justice system by envisaging the Lokpal as something of a super cop, under whose jurisdiction a good portion of the Central Bureau of Investigation will be subsumed. The challenge is to formulate a Lokpal bill that has the teeth lacking in the government draft and is free from the angularities of the civil society version.

As per reports, Mr. Hazare drank neeboo-pani through the hands of a girl and broke off his fast at 11 A.M. on April 9th, 201. During the period of his fast Mr. Hazare had got support of reportedly 44 lakh people. At last he agreed after a government notification for formation of a committee. The social activist had declared that he would try to get the bill passed up to August 15th 2011. The government has already formed a committee which is reportedly unacceptable to baba Ramdeo of Patanjali Yogpeeth, Haridwar. However, with the decision of the government Mr.Anna Hazare kept his promise and became able to come back to join his followers in Ralegan Siddhi. Now it is up to the government in New Delhi to keep its promise and not to enforce Anna Hazare and his followers from the whole country to start another movement in future.

Key Words : Gudi Padwa, Anna Hazare, Jan Lokpal Bill, corruption, Ralegan Siddhi, Maharashtra