Powered by Blogger.

Thursday, September 10, 2009

Pollution free generation of energy from coal

No comments :
The consumption of fossil fuels for energy is far more costly than anything if their scarcity and environmental pollution are concerned. The explosion of human population followed by heavy and haphazard industrial growth, reclamation of land, clearing of forests and lots of destructive activities have created crisis of energy at one hand and global environmental problems like global climate change etc. on the other.

In the technology sector, scientists have been suggesting for low carbon emission technologies and applications of energy efficient mechanisms across the globe. Developed nations have been developing pressures on developing ones to cut short their carbon emissions who are reluctant as development is an urgent need for their populations. However, many developing countries like India are on their ways to reducing carbon emissions and adopting carbon trading systems. As for the efficient technology, efforts are already going on across the world and all the nations are serious over the issue. The U.S. Department of Energy has developed a new technology of producing energy from coal without emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The technology is known as Clean Coal Energy Production Technology.

For the production of Clean Coal Energy, a new type of coal fired power plant has been developed. This new power plant is called as Integrated Gasification Cycle (IGCC). This plant transforms coal into gas to generate electricity without emitting pollutants like those of the traditional coal based power plants. It offers options to eliminate Green House Gases by carbon capture and storage (CCS).

The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle has following 8 steps. First, the gasification involves feeding of coal, water and oxygen into a high pressure reactor. In this process coal is oxidized partially into synthesis gas (the syngas) which is a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The second step is waste removal. When the syngas is cooled and filled, it is called as raw gas which reacts with steam to convert carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide. At this stage more hydrogen, sulphur and other impurities are removed. The third step involves capture of carbon and storage. It has the potential to cut up to 90 percent of the carbon emission. The fourth step is called as the Electricity Generation. It is in this step that hydrogen rich syngas is burnt to drive gas turbine generator. The fifth step is combined cycle in which heat from gas turbine exhausts pass through heat exchanger to generate steam to drive steam turbine. In the sixth step which is also called as the carbon storage step the captured carbon dioxide is compressed and sent via pipeline to permanent underground storage sites that remain far away from the main plant. In the seventh step, the carbon dioxide is stored in porous, salt water filled strata which is sealed with impermeable rock. The eighth step involves the storage of carbon dioxide in oil wells. It is an optional step and under this stage, the pressure of gas helps in the fast recovery of petroleum. (Based on Fact Book of OECD, U.S. Department of Energy).

No comments :

Post a Comment

Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.