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Monday, October 26, 2009

Impacts of application of agro-chemicals on environment

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The High Yielding Varieties of Crops remain vulnerable to a variety of pests and diseases due to their poor resistance. So a variety of pesticides are needed to be used to prevent and care the infestation or the outbreak of pests. However after some time, the pests develop resistance to pesticides due to which the intensity and frequency of pesticides have to be increased every time. This results to the investment of good sum of money, which can be afforded by rich farmers only. Thus green revolution has been favouring the growth and prosperity for rich farmers only.

Over 90 percent of the sprayed pesticides reach a destination other than their target species, including undesired species of plants and animals, air, water, bottom sediments, and food. In many ecosystems it has been found that pesticides kill both the pests and natural predators. This condition creates secondary outbreak of pests which usually remains most damaging.

Pesticides, after they join the food chain and travel to the top consumer cause serious biomagnification. They get deposited in the fatty tissues of animals and human beings where their potency goes on increasing. Severe cases of renal failure, brain damage, blindness and impotency have been reported due to biomagnification of pesticides. Even the smallest quantity of these chemicals can cause long term and widespread impacts as they are in the food chain connected to a vast variety of birds and amphibians.

Here are some examples of how some pesticides are harmful to the biotic components of the environment –

Pesticides, when sprayed, or dusted on crop plants or garden plants, they cause adverse impacts on honey bees, other pollinators, parasites and predators. Continuous use of pesticides leads to development of pesticide-resistance in different pests. This adversely affects the non-target organism that is the organisms that the pesticide is not meant for.


Endosulphan, Linden, Malathion, Chloropyriphos, and many others are highly poisonous to aquatic organisms like amphibians and fish, and also to some terrestrial animals like birds, bees and wildlife. These pesticides cause acute toxicity to liver and kidney, heart, blood, lungs and skin.


Aldrin, Di aldrin, Endrine etc. are a group of highly toxic chemical pesticides that join the food chain and cause serious ailments in the bodies of consumers. Some of the minor troubles caused by traces of these pesticides are –loss of memory, mental retardation, loss of weight, and impotency.

The Chlorinated Hydrocarbons are other group of pesticides that are deposited in the fatty (Adipose) tissues of animals where they are magnified gradually, and cause serious conditions in the later course.

Impacts of Application of Phytohormones
Plant hormones sprayed on plant parts or mixed in soil, are easily absorbed by producers. Then they move through entire biosphere by way of food chains and create chemical imbalance in the bodies of consumers.

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