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Saturday, February 13, 2010

What is institutional structure for monitoring and abatement of pollution in India?

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The United Nations Conference on the “Human Environment” was held at Stockholm in May-June 1972. The delegates of different nations of the world, who attended the conference, realized that the protection and preservation of the natural environment is very important. India too was a participant in the conference. Delegates accepted that pollution is a slow agent of death. The Government of India took it seriously and made provisions for the protection and preservation of environment under Article- 51 A and 48- A of the Indian constitution in 1976.After making constitutional provisions the government of India enacted different laws and framed various rules to control pollution and safeguard the environment through its law enforcement agencies.

The ministry of Environment & Forests in India was formed in India in 1985.This Ministry formulates plans and strategies and enforces laws for Ecological Restoration and Conservation across the country. The Indian Govt. has set up Central Pollution Control Board, and its different state wings to assess, monitor and control various types of pollutions. The central M/O E & F has constituted different authorities besides CPCB for various environmental purposes-

1. National Environmental Appellate Authority -1977: This authority has been created to hear appeals with respect to restricted areas in which classes of industries etc. are carried out or prescribed subjects to certain safeguards and Environmental Protection Act-1986 and National Environmental Appellate Authority Act-1997

2. Environmental Pollution (Prevention & Control) Authority (For National Capital of Delhi)

3. Loss of Ecology (Prevention and Payment of Compensation) Authority (for Tamil Nadu)

4. Dahanu Taluka Environment (protection) Authority.


The Central Pollution Control Board is responsible for the enforcement of following Acts & Rules-
Acts-

1. Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act 1977
2. Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1981
3. Environmental (Protection) Act 1986

Rules-
4. Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling) Rules 1989
5. Manufacture, storage and import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules 1989
6. Coastal Regulation Zone- Rules 1991
7. Public Liability Insurance Rules 1991
8. Bio-medical waste (Management & Handling) Rules 1998
9. Plastic Waste Rules 1999
10. Municipal Solid Waste (management and Handling) Rules 2000
5. The Central Ground Water Authority.


Key Words : Stockholm, Article- 51 A and 48- A, Indian constitution, M/O E & F, Ecological Restoration and Conservation, CPCB

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