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Thursday, March 11, 2010

Dislocation of human power from villages to cities

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The dislocation of manpower from rural to urban areas or from one region to the other region for the purpose of earning money is an age old phenomenon. This dislocation of man power takes place from one country to the other country also. It frequently occurs during international trade, business and academic ventures.

In the age of globalization, countries of the world exchange their labourers in the form of migration. Sometimes skilled people migrate from one country to the other country in search of better opportunities and employment. This type of migration is called as brain drain. The development of better opportunities for skilled people, greater foreign exchange, income and promotion of economic growth can help in checking the skilled manpower against going abroad.

Some developed countries have put a check against the free flow of workers from other countries to their own country in order to get better wages. This flow of migrants to a country creates a burden on job opportunities in that country creating a threat to the employment of its citizens. However, the migration of skilled people and academicians to a country contributes to its strength and income. It increases the income of the developing country as well. Hence developed countries are demanding relaxation in the immigration laws of those countries to permit the movement of their people. The migration of the labour force is often associated with economic, political and environmental insecurity. Its remarkable impact is the growth of urban slums in developing countries.

Urban areas have been expanding as more and more people from rural areas have been migrating towards cities in search of employment, educational opportunities, and better life styles. This migration towards
Urban areas started in sixties and seventies as fashion of adopting urban life styles also. Rural men used to move from villages towards fast industrialising urban areas where they soon got some employment as labourers. There they used to stay for about a year or so and after collecting some money they tend to come back to their homes in villages where they tended to show what they had acquired from cities. Many people who developed their relations in urban areas carried their families there and started schooling of their children and gradually forgot their roots. No one from an urban area ever tried to go to a village, acquire some land and start farming. Thus the migration continued as one way traffic flow. Thus scarcity of human power in rural areas hampered the agricultural economy that could not be compensated by agricultural mechanization.

There have been and even today, there are many other causes of flow of human traffic towards cities. Mega projects of development have been grabbing lands of the rural inhabitants and there are several cases where proper compensation and rehabilitation works don’t have any room on earth. People inhabiting lands near mining areas or industrial areas have to migrate most often due to dangerous pollution and other incidents. Political conflicts too drive away great masses of people across the borders.

Key words : dislocation, migration, urban area, rural area, agriculture, economy, urbanisation, traffic flow, mechanization

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