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Friday, January 20, 2012

Reducing pollution and improving environment

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It is the unthinkable huge magnitude of all the ill effects of pollution and its ever increasing nature, which has forced the whole of humanity to do a great deal of serous thinking about its attitude towards the relationships with the natural environment.

Now, every individual needs to re-orient its life style, re-shape its earlier thinking and realize that the crisis emerged out of pollutions in different spheres of the natural environment may threaten the whole life on this planet.

With more and more people, there are - more and more sewage, more solid waste, more fuel being burnt, more use of fertilizers and pesticides to produce more food etc. Currently, on an average, a city of one million people requires 1800 mt of food, 2700 mt of coal, 2500 mt of oil, 2400 mt of natural gas and 900 mt of motor fuel every day for its people. In turn, the inhabitants of the city produce 1800 mt of garbage, 4, 50,000 mt of sewage, 50 billion Litres of waste water, 400 mt of Carbon monoxide, 135 mt each of Sulphur dioxide and particulate matter and 90 mt each of Nitrogen dioxide and Hydrocarbons per day. The number of cities with population of one million and above runs into thousands and thousands. Even in India, the number of such cities has gone above the number of 120.How much the pollution will all these cities be creating in near future and what may be the consequences of so much of pollution on local, regional, national and global levels?

Under the environmental conditions detailed above, the human society at present is being faced with two important challenges: -
1.   Protection of the quality of the existing environment from further deterioration and,
2.   Gradual restoration of the quality of its living resources.

Both of these will involve managing situations causing undesirable risks, abatement of all the risks and improvements in the existing quality of environment by- characterising the risks scientifically, and implementing the appropriate options that are hopefully acceptable solutions to all the parties concerned. Thus formulation of sound strategies is needed for a sound management of the natural environment which incorporates the reduction of pollution and the improvement of the natural environment. This is what we are going to study in this chapter.

Key Words:  Pollution, fertilizers, pesticides, hydrocarbons, restoration

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